# Download PDF of Networks and Systems by D. Roy Choudhury: A Must-Read Book for Electrical Engineering Students

## D Roy Choudhury Networks and Systems PDF 429: A Comprehensive Guide

If you are an electrical engineering student who wants to learn about electric networks and systems in a systematic and rigorous way, then you might have come across the book Networks and Systems by D Roy Choudhury. This book is a classic text that covers the topics of electric networks and systems in depth, with a lot of examples, problems, and computer applications. In this article, we will give you a comprehensive guide on what this book is about, what are the main topics covered, and how you can access the PDF version of the book online.

## d roy choudhury networks and systems pdf 429

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## Introduction

Networks and Systems by D Roy Choudhury is a book that serves as a text for the treatment of topics in the field of electric networks which are considered as foundation in electrical engineering for undergraduate students. It includes detailed coverage of network theorems, topology, analogous systems, Fourier transforms, Laplace transform, two-port networks, conventional filters, passive synthesis, state variable analysis, network functions, feedback system, frequency response plots, and computer applications. The book employs Laplace transform solution of differential equations and contains material on convolution integral, transient response and frequency domain analysis. Each topic is covered in depth from basic concepts and a large number of solved problems are provided. The book also gives digital computer programs for varieties of problems pertaining to networks and systems.

The author of the book is D Roy Choudhury, who is a professor of electrical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. He has also authored several other books on electrical engineering topics such as linear integrated circuits, modern control engineering, analog and digital communication systems, and microprocessors and microcontrollers. He has received several awards and honors for his contributions to electrical engineering education and research.

The book is important for electrical engineering students because it provides a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of the fundamental concepts and methods of electric network analysis and design. It also helps them to develop their problem-solving skills and apply them to practical situations using computer tools. The book is suitable for both self-study and classroom instruction.

## Basic Circuit Elements and Waveforms

The first chapter of the book introduces the basic circuit elements and waveforms that are used to model and analyze electric circuits. The basic circuit elements are resistor, capacitor, inductor, voltage source, current source, switch, diode, transistor, and operational amplifier. The book explains the properties and characteristics of these elements such as resistance, reactance, impedance, admittance, power dissipation, energy storage, voltage-current relationship, and equivalent circuit models.

The book also explains how to represent and analyze waveforms using Fourier series and transforms. A waveform is a function that describes the variation of a physical quantity such as voltage or current over time. Fourier series is a method of expressing a periodic waveform as a sum of sinusoidal components with different frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. Fourier transform is a method of converting a waveform from time domain to frequency domain or vice versa. The book discusses the properties and applications of Fourier series and transforms such as orthogonality, linearity, symmetry, convolution, modulation, sampling, and filtering.

## Mesh and Node Analysis

The second chapter of the book explains how to apply mesh and node analysis to solve electric circuits. Mesh analysis is a method of finding the currents in each loop or mesh of a circuit by applying Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL). Node analysis is a method of finding the voltages at each node or junction of a circuit by applying Kirchhoff's current law (KCL). The book shows how to write mesh equations and node equations using matrix notation and how to solve them using methods such as Cramer's rule, Gauss elimination, and determinant expansion.

The book also shows how to use graph theory and network equations to simplify circuit analysis. Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of graphs or networks which consist of nodes or vertices connected by edges or branches. Network equations are equations that relate the voltages and currents in a network using graph parameters such as incidence matrix, cut-set matrix, tie-set matrix, loop matrix, tree matrix, and fundamental cut-set matrix. The book discusses how to apply graph theory concepts such as duality, tree, co-tree, cut-set, tie-set, planarity, and topology to network analysis.

## Network Theorems

The third chapter of the book covers the network theorems that are used to simplify circuits or find equivalent circuits. Network theorems are rules or principles that can be applied to any linear network to obtain certain results or properties. The book explains how to apply network theorems such as superposition theorem, Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, maximum power transfer theorem, reciprocity theorem, substitution theorem, compensation theorem, Tellegen's theorem, Millman's theorem, and star-delta transformation theorem.

## The book also provides examples and problems on how to use these network theorems to solve circuits involving resistors, capacitors, inductors, Analogous Systems

The fourth chapter of the book explains how to use analogous systems to model different physical systems using electrical networks. Analogous systems are systems that have the same mathematical equations or relations between their variables, even though they belong to different domains. For example, a mechanical system that involves mass, spring, and damper can be modeled by an electrical system that involves inductor, capacitor, and resistor. By using analogous systems, we can transfer our knowledge and methods from one domain to another and simplify the analysis and design of complex systems.

The book shows how to apply different types of analogies between electrical and mechanical systems, such as force-voltage analogy, force-current analogy, torque-voltage analogy, and torque-current analogy. These analogies are based on finding pairs of variables that have the same units or dimensions and making them equivalent. For example, in the force-voltage analogy, force and voltage are equivalent because they both have units of newtons and volts respectively. Similarly, velocity and current are equivalent because they both have units of meters per second and amperes respectively. The book also discusses how to choose the appropriate analogy for a given system based on its characteristics and advantages.

## Two-Port Networks

The fifth chapter of the book covers the topic of two-port networks, which are networks that have two pairs of terminals for input and output. Two-port networks are useful for modeling devices or subsystems that can be connected to other networks or sources. For example, a transformer, an amplifier, a filter, or a transmission line can be represented by a two-port network. The book explains how to characterize two-port networks using different parameters that relate the input and output voltages and currents.

The book introduces various types of two-port parameters, such as impedance parameters (Z-parameters), admittance parameters (Y-parameters), hybrid parameters (h-parameters), inverse hybrid parameters (g-parameters), chain parameters (ABCD-parameters), scattering parameters (S-parameters), transmission parameters (T-parameters), and hybrid-pi parameters (Ï€-parameters). The book shows how to derive these parameters from the network equations or circuit diagrams and how to convert between them using matrix operations. The book also discusses how to use these parameters to analyze two-port networks in terms of their input impedance, output impedance, voltage gain, current gain, power gain, and insertion loss.

## Attenuators

The sixth chapter of the book deals with the topic of attenuators, which are devices that reduce the power or amplitude of a signal without distorting its shape or frequency. Attenuators are used for various purposes such as matching impedances, controlling signal levels, protecting circuits from overload, and measuring power or voltage ratios. The book explains how to design attenuators using different methods such as T-pad method, pi-pad method, bridged-T pad method, L-pad method, and balanced attenuator method.

The book describes the properties and characteristics of these methods such as attenuation ratio, input impedance, output impedance, reflection coefficient, and return loss. The book also provides examples and problems on how to design attenuators for different specifications such as desired attenuation, input resistance, output resistance, and frequency range.

## Conventional Filters

The seventh chapter of the book covers the topic of conventional filters, which are networks that pass or reject signals based on their frequency. Filters are used for various applications such as signal processing, communication systems, noise reduction, and frequency selection. The book explains how to design filters using different methods such as constant-k method, m-derived method, composite method, image parameter method, insertion loss method, Butterworth method, Chebyshev method, Bessel method, elliptic method, and all-pass method.

## The book describes the properties and characteristics of these methods such as cut-off frequency, passband, stopband, bandwidth, ripple factor, attenuation constant, phase shift, group delay, and filter order. The book also provides examples and problems on how to design filters for different specifications such as desired frequency response, passband ripple, stopband attenuation, Convolution Integral

The eighth chapter of the book explains how to use convolution integral to find the response of linear systems to any input signal. Convolution integral is a mathematical operation that expresses how the shape of one function is modified by another function. In electrical engineering, convolution integral can be used to determine the output signal of a linear time invariant system for a given input signal with knowledge of the system's unit impulse response. The unit impulse response is the output signal when the input signal is a unit impulse function.

## The book shows how to apply convolution integral to find the output signal of a system by integrating the product of the input signal and the shifted unit impulse response. The book also shows how to apply convolution theorem, which states that the Laplace transform of the convolution integral is equal to the product of the Laplace transforms of the input signal and the unit impulse response. The book discusses the properties and applications of convolution integral such as linearity, commutativity, associativity, distributivity, scaling, shifting, Laplace Transform

The ninth chapter of the book covers the topic of Laplace transform, which is a powerful mathematical tool that is very useful in electrical engineering. Laplace transform is a method of converting a function of time t into a function of complex frequency s by using an integral formula. Laplace transform can be used to solve linear differential equations with given initial conditions by using algebraic methods, to solve electrical circuits with given initial conditions, to analyze the stability and performance of systems, and to study the frequency response and transfer functions of systems.

## State Variable Analysis

The tenth chapter of the book explains how to use state variable analysis to model and analyze linear systems using a set of first-order differential equations. State variable analysis is a method of representing the dynamic behavior of a system by using a set of variables that describe the state of the system at any given time. The state variables are usually chosen as the natural variables associated with the energy storing elements in the system, such as capacitor voltages and inductor currents in electrical networks, or positions and velocities of inertial masses in mechanical systems. The number of state variables equals the order of the system, which is the degree of the highest derivative in the system differential equation.

## Network Functions

The eleventh chapter of the book covers the topic of network functions, which are functions that describe the behavior of networks in frequency domain. Network functions are defined as the ratio of Laplace transform of output (response) of the network to the Laplace transform of input (excitation) applied to the network, under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero. Network functions are denoted as H(s), G(s), or T(s) in s domain. Network functions can be used to study the frequency response and transfer functions of networks.

## Passive Network Synthesis

The twelfth chapter of the book covers the topic of passive network synthesis, which is the process of designing an electrical network that behaves in a prescribed way using only passive components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Passive network synthesis is useful for creating networks that have certain desired properties such as impedance matching, filter characteristics, or energy storage. The book explains how to design passive networks that meet certain specifications using different methods such as Foster's theorem, Cauer's theorem, Brune's method, Bott-Duffin method, and Darlington's method.

## Feedback System

The thirteenth chapter of the book covers the topic of feedback system, which is a system that uses a sample of its output signal to modify its input signal in order to improve its performance. Feedback system is widely used in amplifier circuits, oscillators, process control systems, and in many other areas. Benefits of a feedback system include the ability to precisely control gain, improve linear response, reduce signal distortion, and control signal fluctuations. The book explains how to design feedback systems using different methods such as feedback types, feedback topologies, feedback effects, feedback stability, Nyquist criterion, root locus method, and frequency compensation.

## The book describes the properties and characteristics of these methods such as positive feedback, negative feedback, series feedback, shunt feedback, voltage feedback, current feedback, voltage series feedback amplifier, current series feedback amplifier, voltage shunt feedback amplifier, current shunt feedback amplifier, sensitivity reduction, bandwidth extension, noise reduction, distortion reduction, stability margin, phase margin, gain margin, Nyquist plot, root locus plot, pole-zero plot, lead compensation, lag compensation, and lead-lag compensation. The book also provides examples and problems on how to design feedback systems for different specifications such as desired gain, bandwidth, stability, Computer Applications

The fourteenth chapter of the book covers the topic of computer applications, which are software tools that can be used to solve network problems using numerical methods and graphical interfaces. Computer applications are useful for performing complex calculations, simulations, and optimizations that are difficult or impossible to do by hand. The book explains how to use computer applications such as MATLAB, SPICE, and PSPICE for network analysis and design.

MATLAB is a high-level programming language and environment that allows users to perform matrix operations, data analysis, signal processing, control system design, and visualization. The book shows how to use MATLAB commands and functions to solve network problems such as finding network parameters, solving network equations, finding network functions, plotting frequency response, and designing filters. The book also shows how to use MATLAB toolboxes such as Control System Toolbox, Signal Processing Toolbox, and Simulink for network analysis and design.

SPICE is a general-purpose circuit simulation program that can model the behavior of electrical and electronic circuits using nonlinear differential equations. The book shows how to use SPICE commands and syntax to create circuit netlists, specify circuit elements and sources, perform different types of analyses such as DC analysis, AC analysis, transient analysis, and frequency response analysis, and display output results. The book also shows how to use SPICE models and libraries for various devices such as diodes, transistors, operational amplifiers, and integrated circuits.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have given you a comprehensive guide on the book Networks and Systems by D Roy Choudhury. We have summarized the main topics covered in each chapter of the book and provided some examples and problems to illustrate the concepts and methods. We hope that this article has helped you to understand the scope and content of the book and to appreciate its importance and relevance for electrical engineering students. If you are interested in learning more about electric networks and systems, we recommend that you read the book in detail and practice the exercises and problems given in the book.

## FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions about the book Networks and Systems by D Roy Choudhury.

- Q: Where can I find the PDF version of the book online? - A: You can download the PDF version of the book from this link: https://www.academia.edu/37559177/Networks_and_Systems_by_D_Roy_Chaudhary.pdf - Q: What are the prerequisites for reading the book? - A: The book assumes that you have a basic knowledge of calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, complex variables, and circuit theory. - Q: How can I check my answers to the problems given in the book? - A: You can find the solutions manual for the book from this link: https://www.academia.edu/37559178/Solution_Manual_of_Networks_and_Systems_by_D_Roy_Chaudhary.pdf - Q: What are some other books that are similar to this book? - A: Some other books that are similar to this book are: - Electric Circuits by James W. Nilsson and Susan Riedel - Engineering Circuit Analysis by William H. Hayt Jr., Jack E. Kemmerly, and Steven M. Durbin - Linear Systems and Signals by B.P. Lathi and Roger A. Green - Modern Control Engineering by Katsuhiko Ogata - Q: How can I contact the author of the book? - A: You can contact the author of the book by sending an email to drc@ee.iitd.ac.in 71b2f0854b